A study recently published by MDPI shows extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a lipid food, which constitutes a pillar of the Mediterranean diet. A high number of scientific data have demonstrated that it exerts a variety of beneficial effects on human health due to its peculiar chemical composition including fatty acids (98–99%) and other active compounds even if found in a very low percentage (1–2%). Among them, minor polar compounds (MCPs), represented mainly by phenolic compounds, are relevant for their healthy properties, as stated by the European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) claims. In this paper, we described the results obtained from a pilot in vivo study, focused for the first time on the evaluation of the possible beneficial effects of two EVOOs on chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients after the consumption of 40 mL per day for 9 weeks. The selected EVOOs, traced in the production chain, and characterized by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-DAD-MS) analysis, resulted rich in MCPs and satisfied the EFSA’s claim for their content of hydroxytyrosol and derivatives. The results obtained by this in vivo study appear to highlight the potential beneficial role in CKD patients of these EVOOs and are promising for future studies.